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Wearable, high-density fNIRS and diffuse optical tomography technologies: a perspective

Ernesto E. Vidal-Rosas
Alexander von Lühmann
Paola Pinti
Robert J. Cooper

May 17, 2023

Recent progress in optoelectronics has made wearable and high-density functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and diffuse optical tomography (DOT) technologies possible for the first time. These technologies have the potential to open new fields of real-world neuroscience by enabling functional neuroimaging of the human cortex at a resolution comparable to fMRI in almost any environment and population. In this perspective article, we provide a brief overview of the history and the current status of wearable high-density fNIRS and DOT approaches, discuss the greatest ongoing challenges, and provide our thoughts on the future of this remarkable technology.