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Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) 2.0: A Manifesto of Open Challenges and Interdisciplinary Research Directions

Luca Longo
Mario Brcic
Federico Cabitza
Jaesik Choi
Roberto Confalonieri
J. Ser
Riccardo Guidotti
Yoichi Hayashi
Francisco Herrera
Andreas Holzinger
Richard Jiang
Hassan Khosravi
Freddy Lecue
Gianclaudio Malgieri
Andres Paez
Wojciech Samek
Johannes Schneider
Timo Speith
Simone Stumpf

February 15, 2024

As systems based on opaque Artificial Intelligence (AI) continue to flourish in diverse real-world applications, understanding these black box models has become paramount. In response, Explainable AI (XAI) has emerged as a field of research with practical and ethical benefits across various domains. This paper not only highlights the advancements in XAI and its application in real-world scenarios but also addresses the ongoing challenges within XAI, emphasizing the need for broader perspectives and collaborative efforts. We bring together experts from diverse fields to identify open problems, striving to synchronize research agendas and accelerate XAI in practical applications. By fostering collaborative discussion and interdisciplinary cooperation, we aim to propel XAI forward, contributing to its continued success. Our goal is to put forward a comprehensive proposal for advancing XAI. To achieve this goal, we present a manifesto of 27 open problems categorized into nine categories. These challenges encapsulate the complexities and nuances of XAI and offer a road map for future research. For each problem, we provide promising research directions in the hope of harnessing the collective intelligence of interested stakeholders.